Mathematics Glossary » Table 2
Print this pageCommon multiplication and division situations.^{1}
Unknown Product | Group Size Unknown (“How many in each group?” Division) | Number of Groups Unknown (“How many groups?” Division) | |
3 x 6 = ? | 3 x ? = 18, and 18 ÷ 3 = ? | ? x 6 = 18, and 18 ÷ 6 = ? | |
Equal Groups | There are 3 bags with 6 plums in each bag. How many plums are there in all? Measurement example. You need 3 lengths of string, each 6 inches long. How much string will you need altogether? | If 18 plums are shared equally into 3 bags, then how many plums will be in each bag? Measurement example. You have 18 inches of string, which you will cut into 3 equal pieces. How long will each piece of string be? | If 18 plums are to be packed 6 to a bag, then how many bags are needed? Measurement example. You have 18 inches of string, which you will cut into pieces that are 6 inches long. How many pieces of string will you have? |
Arrays^{2}, Area^{3} | There are 3 rows of apples with 6 apples in each row. How many apples are there? Area example. What is the area of a 3 cm by 6 cm rectangle? | If 18 apples are arranged into 3 equal rows, how many apples will be in each row? Area example. A rectangle has area 18 square centimeters. If one side is 3 cm long, how long is a side next to it? | If 18 apples are arranged into equal rows of 6 apples, how many rows will there be? Area example. A rectangle has area 18 square centimeters. If one side is 6 cm long, how long is a side next to it? |
Compare | A blue hat costs $6. A red hat costs 3 times as much as the blue hat. How much does the red hat cost? Measurement example. A rubber band is 6 cm long. How long will the rubber band be when it is stretched to be 3 times as long? | A red hat costs $18 and that is 3 times as much as a blue hat costs. How much does a blue hat cost? Measurement example. A rubber band is stretched to be 18 cm long and that is 3 times as long as it was at first. How long was the rubber band at first? | A red hat costs $18 and a blue hat costs $6. How many times as much does the red hat cost as the blue hat? Measurement example. A rubber band was 6 cm long at first. Now it is stretched to be 18 cm long. How many times as long is the rubber band now as it was at first? |
General | a x b = ? | a x ? = p and p ÷ a = ? | ? x b = p, and p ÷ b = ? |
^{1}The language in the array examples shows the easiest form of array problems. A harder form is to use the terms rows and columns: The apples in the grocery window are in 3 rows and 6 columns. How many apples are in there? Both forms are valuable.
^{2}Area involves arrays of squares that have been pushed together so that there are no gaps or overlaps, so array problems include these especially important measurement situations.
^{3}The first examples in each cell are examples of discrete things. These are easier for students and should be given before the measurement examples.